research paper

research proposal

My proposal research topic is related with objectified sexuality in advertisements in United States.With technology today, we can see advertisements from the comfort of our own homes. We do not have to step outside anymore to see posters, billboards, or ads in the paper; rather we simply turn on the television or open our internet and see thousands of advertisements. In order to catch more audience’s attention, many businesses start promoting their products by using sexualized women and men. According to a blog posted in wordpress.com, called “Sex in Advertising,” today, up to 10% of commercials contain sexual content. There are sexual commercials targeted to both men and women. In these eroticized images or videos, men or women usually expose their skins with desirable facial expressions to deliver their sex appeals physically to arouse attentions from the viewers: male models use their sexual appeals to emphasize their power of domination while female models use the same appeals to illustrate their seduction and temptation. Also sexually implicit words are intentionally used to arouse viewers’ desire and attentions. In this research paper, my intention is to understand the ideology reflected by sexualized advertisements in modern popular culture. Generally, while either men or women are sexualized in the advertisement, they are objectified as well, so they can please audience and bring profits. This research is essential because the objectification of sexuality has changed both cultural values and business advertising: viewers of advertisements have adapted the sexual orientation in commercials subconsciously, and various kinds of industries had changed their ways from traditionally advertising to including sexual contents in advertisements to introduce their products. My question of this research paper is how the practices of advertising as they relate to sexualized images of men and women in mainstream media bring social impact and influence the cultural values of the United States.

literature review

The social impact of sexualized images in the United States is enormous. As the original impulse of human, sexuality has the power of changing viewers’ emotions and attitudes: for example, Marilyn Monroe used her beauty and her white skirt, a symbol of her sexuality, arousing energy and excitement of millions of audience during and after the war in United States. When Sexuality encounter advertisements, which is a powerful media of communications between individuals and the society, this special combination of these two elements influence audience and the society greatly. In order to understand the enormous impact brought by sexualized advertisements in the United States, a broad research is essential. The sources below give the illustrations of the beginning of using sexualized advertisements as a way to promote products, types of ways of how sexuality has been used in advertisements, and stereotypes reinforced in sexualized advertisements.

Sex in advertising, the use of sexual information in promotional messages, has present since advertising’s beginning. In several cases, sex in advertising has been the motivation for increased consumer interest and sales. For example,  documented in the blog called “sex in advertising,” in order to increase cigarette sales in 1885, W. Duke and Son inserted trading cards into cigarette packs that featured sexually provocative starlets; during the time of World War I, Ivory Soap use an image of sailors bathing together on a deck as the advertisement. The way of promoting products by including sexual information has been used by advertisers over time.

The commonly defined forms of sexual information in advertising include the following: nudity (dress), physical attractiveness, suggestive behavior, interactions innuendo, and other fraction such as setting, content, and camera effects. According to Plous, S., and Dominique Neptune, by far, most content and effects research in the advertising literature involves revealing displays of human body, which refers to nudity. This form of sexual content often related to the amount and style of clothing wore by the model. Another element of sexual content is sexual behavior: model moving and talking in a manner that communicate sexual interest or in a manner intended to evoke viewers’ sexual interest, which include sexualized language and interaction between two or more people. Sexual language which, for example, models speak in breathy and low tone can deliver sexual sensation, while interaction among people such as kissing, embracing, stripping, and voyeurism contribute to the same sexual interpretation. Furthermore, Contextual factors also enhance and frame sexual content are also present in advertisements. These elements include settings such as a romantic bedroom, a small space with dim lights, strip club or campfire beside the beach, and filming techniques such as fast pacing and slowly moving camera over models’ breasts or other sexually implied anatomy. Sexual referents, such as verbal elements, or the mix of verbal and visual elements, including sexual innuendo and double entendre, can also intend to give sexual appeal to the advertisements. For example, an advertisement for the Rice Council promoting their rice industry featured the image of a women looking at the camera with her finger between her lips with the headline, “ The first time it kind of scared me.” The women was referring to cooking rice, but the interpretation was sexually suggestive, even more with the image.(Why the first time of cooking rice can be scary. I’m confused by this ad.) Overall, there are much more ways for advertisers to give sexually suggestive interpretations and put them into advertisements as a way of promoting the industry; however, the four elements are the common pattern we will receive each day.

At the same time, viewers also found that the gender stereotype is explicit in advertisements. In this case, women are always thought as sexualized and decorative beings in advertisements, and as the trend, the stereotype of women is increasingly spreading. For example, Lazior Smith found that the percentage of advertisements portraying women as decorative or sex objects increased from 27% in 1973 to 37% in 1986. This emphasis on female beauty and sexuality suggests the gender bias in advertising industry. Furthermore, the research made by Plous, S., and Dominique Neptune shows that women are more likely to wear animal prints than men do. In the research, of conducting 43 advertisements that display animal prints, 30 showed a black women wearing the prints. In remaining, animal prints were worn by white women in 10 advertisements, by white men in 2 advertisements, and by both white man and woman in 1 advertisements, and none of black men wearing animal prints in samples. The research includes the difference of frequency between two races, which can also reflect the racial bias; however, we are not focus on race in this research. The same research also showed that 70% of animal in prints are predatory and sexualized, like a predatory jungle cat. Evidence suggests that animal prints evoke sexual stereotypes: animal prints were thought to make women feel more sexy, wild, seductive, and beautiful than matched control prints, and that the most common reason given for wearing animal prints was that man find them attractive or sexy. People finds out women who wear animal prints were more sexually active than other women, less educated, lower income, more concerned about their physical appearance, less concerned about their society’s problem, which can be summarized as — wild instincts.

After we combining all these sources which illustrate the history, different forms, and gender bias of sexualized advertising, we then proceed to analyze the social impact brought by sexualized advertisements. While the history proves that Americans have been influenced for long time, the different forms of sexual information and the way of advertising promote gender stereotypes help us understand how sexualized advertisements influence audience’s mind and values better. All of these sources bring great illustrations of sexualized advertising from different perspective.

 

 

analysis

“Sexuality is socially constructed, that is, it is a learned set of behaviors accompanied by cognitive interpretations of these behaviors. Sexuality, then is less a product of biology than of the socialization processes specific to a given culture at a particular point in time” (Fracher & Kimmel 367). Sexuality provides a powerful expression of masculinity and femininity, but it also reflects the cultural understanding and social value of both men and women, and partly change them. As the communication between the society and individuals, advertisements play an important role delivering sexual informations, which brings great social impact to the modern society. The objectification of sexuality in advertising brings great influence to American culture and society because of the following factors: promotion of products that can easily draw attentions, reinforcement of gender stereotypes, and finally, the gender appearance liberation movements which challenge the traditional image of men and women and change them.

 

The objectification of sexuality in advertisements helps companies promote products in three ways — increasing attractions of attention, giving positive feelings(attitudes) , and invoking purchase intention, which finally raise the economy of the country. Sexual ads are more engaging, involving, and interesting than nonsexual ads. For example, Bello et al. tested both a sexual and a nonsexual version of the Brooke Shields’ Calvin Klein jeans commercial. Framed with a camera shot that took 13 seconds to slowly move along her leg before including her face, Shields asks, “You want to know what comes between me and my Calvins? Nothing”, which had an unmistakable sexual meaning in the 30-second commercial. The sexual version was rated as more interesting by both female and male 18-24-year-old respondents(Bello et al., 39). This study show that sexual ads are able to captivate viewers and maintain attention, since sexual images stimulate viewers’ vision more than normal images of ads.

Additionally, since the attention is directed toward sexual informations, recognition of sexual images in ads, like women in revealing cloth, is significantly higher than ads without sexual images, which brings the deep memory of product and its company. The most significant example can be brand name recall. Sexual ads also give viewers positive emotions. As individuals view ads through media, they form favourable or unfavourable feelings toward the ad which can influence things like attitudes toward the brand and purchase intention(which will be mentioned). When sexual explicitness increases in the ads, audience will have positive attitudes since the sexual images trigger the excitement of the viewer, which leads to the final benefit — purchase intension. In the study made by Dudley, the pattern indicated that ads with sexual information consistently produced high levels of purchase intentions: Dudley found that a sustain lotion brand feature in sexual ads was more likely to stimulate purchase and usage interest than the same brand in a product-only ad(Dudley 93). Overall, the objectification of sexuality has been used for earn profits by drawing attention, creating positive attitudes and feelings, and increasing purchase intention, which makes sexuality in advertisements influence our society economically for centuries.

The objectification of sexuality in ads also reinforces, even increases the gender stereotypes. In most western cultures, women don’t have the same social status like men do. S. Plous and Dominique Neptune summarize the four gender stereotypes reflected from magazine advertisement:(a) “A women’s place is in the home,” (b) “Women do not make important decisions or do important things,” (c) “ Women are dependent and need men’s protection,” and (d) “Men regard women primarily as sex objects; they are not interested in women as people.”(Plous & Neptune 628) Sexual image in magazine reflect those four gender stereotypes in three ways: sexualizing and decorating women, using different frequencies of male and female exposure, and wearing animal prints. In magazines, as the trend, women are always displayed decoratively and sexualized. Lazier Smith found that the percentage of advertisements portraying women as decorative and sex objects increased from 27% in 1973 to 37% in 1986. Women are far more likely than men to be portrayed as nude or sexualized(Plous & Neptune 628). Also according to Plous’ and Dominique Neptune’s research, women who expose buttocks, upper legs, stomach, shoulders, or back are approximately four times more common than men exposing themselves in ads. This emphasis on female beauty and sexuality promote the gender ideology that women are always the object of sex, being decorated, staying in home and waiting their men come back and enjoy their bodies. The frequent exposure of skins emphasizes that women are overtly sexual beings who always ready for sex, which is highly problematic.

While women are sexualized in most of the ads, men also share the same sexual objectification in advertisements as well. The objectification of sexuality creates a certain gender liberation which leads to a change of culture. For example, Depictions of male sexuality in ads create the male liberation movement.  In the sexualized presentations of men in ads, erotic men represents a physical and sexual ideal. Sexuality of men promotes masculinity, and because masculinity is believed to proceed from men’s bodies, the male body becomes a tool that men manipulate in order to achieve gender identity.Amen must engage in an incessant “surveillance” of his performance to ensure that he is sufficiently masculine. However, as the social ubiquitous communications, advertisements with erotic men challenge how people define masculinity, which create the male liberation movement. Rochon’s explanation provides great understanding of “movement”: broad cultural change begins with critical thinkers who think intensively about a problem and develop a shared understanding of how the problem should be viewed. In order to make the thought survive in the society, people spread the idea with “cultural movement”, advertisements in this case(Rochon 95).

Advertisements are a particular good source for studying values because advertisers often position the product in relation to cultural symbols and values. As the men’s movement expanded it’s understanding of men’s liberation to the wider culture, the liberation movement starts being commercialized and becoming “palatable”(Rochon 97), since the liberation is promoted to the level which can be lucrative. The commercialization of the male liberation has effected the cultural identity of men somehow. The joy of bodily movement and expression as well as diametrically opposed to the manly appearance associated with masculine stereotype. Appearance of men changes to a more “natural” look, such as long hair and loose-fitted clothing, which challenged gender distinctions. Men’s liberation movement triggered by erotic male image in advertisements is just one of the examples among all, which proves the powerful and meaningful use of dissemination by the sexuality in advertisements.

Most of the audience think that promoting sexual image of both men and women in advertising can only be entertaining. However, beyond of triggering visual pleasures, sexualized advertisements are changing the viewers’ perspective: sexualized advertisements construct the idealization of both men and women, which reinforce the definition of human beauty among the audience while change it too; they captivate viewers’ attention in order to arouse intention of purchasing; and last but not least, they construct and strengthen gender stereotypes. Advertisements have great social power to change our value because we can easily access these images everyday. While we are viewing sexualized advertisements, we are having communications with those advertisements and receiving messages from them subconsciously as well. After again and again viewing those sexual informations, our minds and values usually are changed somehow. This is one of the example of social media controls and leads individuals’ mind and perspective: advertisers use sexualize advertising media to lead audience’s perspective of beauty and stereotypical images of both gender, and attempt audience to pay. And this is why sexuality in advertisements can be so important to be discussed frequently. Overall, even sexual images in advertisements may promote problematic gender ideas, we still can’t deny that sexuality in ads greatly brings cultural and economic effect in our daily life. No matter it’s right or wrong, the objectification of sexuality show us a different perspective of viewing male and female sexuality.

 

Bibliography

Bello, D. C., Pitts, P. E., & Etzel, M. J . (1983). The communication effects of controversial sexual content in television programs and commercials.Journal of Aduertising, 12(3),32-42.

In this source, the author give a nice demonstration and multiple examples explaining how sexual informations in advertisements communicate with the viewer. In the research, the author used both sexual version and non-sexual version of Brooke Shields’ Calvin Klein jeans commercial to test that sexual content bring more benefits. This source is essential because the research proves that sexual orientations bring more attentions among young generation.

Dudley, S. C. (1999). Consumer attitudes toward nudity in advertising. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 79(4), 89-96.

This source gives great explanation of how sexual advertising arouse purchase intention. First, this source provides me a new term which is purchase intention, which is the reason why customers pay for products. The author tested various commercials to test how nudities captivate attentions from viewers and bring purchase intention. This research is useful, because the logic in this research helps me string other sources about sexuality in marketing together.

Plous, S., and Dominique Neptune. “Racial And Gender Biases In Magazine Advertising.” Psychol of Women Q Psychology of Women Quarterly 21.4 (1997), 627-644.

In this source, the author did a research gathering informations of proportions of both men and women with different race being sexualized. In the research, they have tested samples from six fashion-oriented magazines, 12472 advertisements in all. The source discusses the issue that women has been sexualized more frequently than men, which promote problematic gender stereotype of women. The paper also mentioned issue such as that black women usually wear animal print, and white women are more possibly expose their skin in magazines.

Rochon, Thomas R. Culture Moves: Ideas, Activism, and Changing Values. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1998, 213-222.Print

In this book which mainly writes about the changing value of the American culture, the author widely wrote about gender discrimination, sexual harassment, racial solidarity, and movement involvement. I mainly focus on the chapter7-2 — movement ideology. First, the author explains the specific definition of cultural movement, and brings ideas and effects of it. This source is quiet important because this explanation give me a brand new idea about advertisements which is the most significant communication between individuals and the society. Advertisements fit perfectly in his definition of cultural movement, so I can combine the male appearance shifting I learnt with it, which brings a quiet interesting conversation.

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informative essay

Writing 1

jiajun xiao

Yolanda Venegas

April 25, 2016

Sexuality and Gender Roles

Gender refers to the widely shared set of expectations and norms linked to how women and men, and girls and boys, should behave. Unlike ‘sex’ which refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women, gender is related to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that are assigned to men and women in any given society. These expectations are not fixed but are continually being constructed and reinforced through social relationships and economic and political power dynamics. Gender and sexuality, which used to be thought of as two distinct and separate categories, have always been closely related. This article explores the relationships between sexuality and gender roles as they have changed over time, focusing on an analysis of gender and sexuality in ancient Greek visual elements and the ways in which these are present today.

Social concept of gender roles

According to the website boundless.com, as we grow up, we learn how to behave from the environment around us. In this socialization process, children are introduced to certain roles and taught to play the role which is assigned to their biological sex. These roles are defined as ‘gender roles’, referring to the social concept of how men and women are expected to act and behave. Gender roles are based on norms, or standards, created by society. Wrote in the website,“In American culture, masculine roles have traditionally been associated with strength, aggression, and dominance, while feminine roles have traditionally been associated with passivity, nurturing, and subordination.”(boundless.com, 2)

Sexuality as revealed by gender roles and ideals in ancient Greek art— a typical case of sexuality representing the gender roles.

 

a. the most common poses when sex with wives      b. with sex workers

 

c. rare d. very rare

By exploring the visual elements of ancient Greeks, scholars infer the relationship between sexuality and gender cultures from sexual images with varieties of sex poses, and there are certain frequencies of each. The most popular sex pose is the one shown in image b. In this sex pose, the man doesn’t make eye contact with the woman since she is a sex worker; this is shown by her short hair and fully nudity, a common way to depict prostitutes in Greek culture. We can see that the male is the person who has the power and controls the sex. Also, this same form of male domination can be shown in image a, which shows favorite sex poses of men with their wives; the lion pose is on the left and the missionary pose on the right. In most cases, the women don’t usually look back at the men, but in this case there is eye contact. The long hair of the women suggests that they are well-paid and well-educated hetairai, so perhaps these images indicate that there is a companionship  between the two people (hetairai literally means companions). However, the poses in c and d are rare. In the both pictures, the men are having sex with female sex workers who are on top of their clients, which means the women are taking charge of the sex. Also, d is the rarest because the man and the woman are having intimate eye contact, and at the same time, the woman is on the top of the man.

From the different popularity of sex poses, we still can’t explain the entire sexual practice of ancient Greek society, but the social and cultural concepts can be illustrated. Women are typically under men’s bodies and being manipulated. In image A, women are controlled to do the uncomfortable poses, and in b, the sex workers are trying to keep balance by supporting themselves on the furniture.When engaging in sexual behavior, women in general rarely have eye contact with men. Rather than serving as sexual stimulations, the images emphasize the idealization of male domination and the pleasure of bodies. All the details can show the gender culture of the ancient Greek society, which emphazises the prominence of male domination, female obedience and adjustment to male power. The ideal can also be supported by the slight shift that occurred in Greek visual culture around 470BC. This included the transformation of individual sex scenes to rape scenes and the body satisfaction to male domination. These illustrate that gender ideologies during this time normalised the violation of women, which again, reveal the gender structure of the time. Overall, in exploring the presentations of sexuality of the ancient Greeks, the male gender role represents domination, while the female gender role represents sexual humility and obedience.

The social expectation of male power depicted in ancient Greek culture might be too exaggerated/dramatic in comparison to modern society; however, male domination represented in the relationship between sexuality and gender roles still strongly exists in modern western culture, which is a patriarchal society, like ancient Greece.

Sexuality and gender roles influence each other in modern society

Gender norms often influence sexual practice. Social expectations associate with their gender have great influence to men and women about how they should behave, which include sex behaviour, attitude, and feelings. These gender expectations separate humans into two categories: men and women, and they should behave differently based on their biological sex, so people affected by these gender expectations are assumed  to be heterosexual. This assumption of natural heterosexual marriage is called heteronormativity. However, because of the diversity of gender norms related to sexuality, both men and women could suffer from the stress of obeying gender expectations, as we can see in the article “Sexuality and Social Justice”, “women may be forced to enter marriages against their will and some may be subject to marital rape; boys can be bullied or punished if boys are not ‘macho’ enough, or if they express same-sex desires.”

Also, gender and sexuality control women’s life. Among cultures, women are always  defined as vulnerable and in need of protection from men’s sexual advances. In this situation, women’s virginity becomes significant as a way to access resources. In order to arrange marriages and maintain the social status of the whole family, virginity is highly recommended. The way of controlling women’s sexuality and preventing the loss of virginity is to block their access to education: parents fear the increasing opportunity of sexual encounters between boys and girls, and educated women have more possibilities to challenge patriarchal societies, which is strengthened over time.

Moreover, ideology of gender norms related to sexuality can affect women’s health. As in a patriarchal society, when a man has sex with different women, people may define him as a “player” who should be respected; however, when a woman has sex with different men, people will possibly call her a “slut”. Because of different gender expectation and sexual practice assigned by biological sex, stigma associated with women who have primatial sex can be easily aroused in the patriarchal cultural background. Gendered expectations that young women cannot manage or protect their sexuality also has implications for women’s access to education and employment. In addition, women are more vulnerable to pregnancy, STD’s and other sexually transmitted disease in non-informed sex relationships, and because of the social stigma, women will be assaulted if they find access of health care. However, living in a patriarchal society, men are impacted differently by sexuality and gender, and usually they benefit most from these gender practices: rather than disability of pregnancy, and less chance of getting violated and being transmitted disease, men’s vulnerability is usually be ignored, as men are generally positioned as the perpetrators of sexual violence and not the victims.

  • gender norms often influence sexual practices… 
  • gender and sexuality control women’s lives
    • significance of virginity as way to access resources… 
      • stigma associated with women who have premarital sex; this can affect women’s health (e.g, non-informed sex, women more vulnerable to pregnancy, STD’s, etc.)
      • men are impacted differently by sexuality and gender… as men, living in a patriarchal society, benefit most from these gender norms/sexual practices…. 
      • bring in other sources… how are these all related to ancient greek practices with respect to gender/sexuality…

Bibliography

non-academic

“Gender and Sociology – Boundless Open Textbook.” Boundless. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2016.

“Sexuality and Social Justice: A Toolkit.” Interactions for Gender Justice. Institution of Development Studies, n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2016.

“Gender and Sociology – Boundless Open Textbook.” Boundless. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2016.

academic

Palko, Abby. “Office of Pre-College Programs.” Gender and Culture in American Society // // University of Notre Dame. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2016.

Peradotto, John, and J. P. Sullivan. Women in the Ancient World: The Arethusa Papers. Albany: State U of New York, 1984. Print.

Yarber, William L., and Barbara Werner. Sayad. Human Sexuality: Diversity in Contemporary America. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2013. Print.

3.2

Sultaan’s text

1.Literacy narrative

The narrative conclude the story of Sultaan’s experience of learning Koran /

The same feature with Douglass’s narrative is they both share the story of a certain person to learn a certain type of text.

2.People who are unfamiliar of a certain type of text or language which around them.

There were challenges to learn the language but the author never gave up

3. students and scholars who explore Sultaan and Quran

4. To mention the education of Muslim culture, to record the story of Sultaan learning Koran

5. Literacy and power are connected by the religion and politics of Muslin.

4.3

Screen Shot 2016-04-13 at 12.38.33 PM 1

6.1/ 6.2/ 6.3

6.1 Tips about washing hands

1.Choose the right hand wash or hand soap. It helps you clean better

2.Be patient. Don’t scrub your hands too fast. It might hurt your skin if you keep hardly scrub hands as a habit.

3.Clean the gaps between fingers. Bacteria hide in them.

4.Also clean your nails if they are long. Dirts might stuck in them.

5.Dry your hands after you wash it carefully. Bacteria can grow easily in wet circumstances.

6.2 Tutorial of painting

  1. in order to paint a polish and alive oil painting, we need to use pencil to sketch a draft in the first step which shows most of the structure and details.
  2. we paint all of the canvas with basic colours to confirm there is no blank space left over, which make the following process much easier

3.  Then we can start painting the background with specific colour first, since background occupies most of the screen, which make it the most important.

4.   we separately paint every details with deep colour and bright colour on the screen, which make us be more methodically.

5.   final adjustment of the whole screen.

Lets work in our dining hall!

If you have leisure time and have nothing to do, why not join the dining hall and start working this quarter? It sounds great, isn’t it. As a paid job, working in the dining hall can give you a great experience of working and cooperating.

WHILE IT’S PAID, IT’S CONVENIENT!

Compared to other jobs, the time of working in the dining hall can actually be the most flexible timing you have ever seen. You can choose how many hours you want to work per day, even though there are certain minimum and maximum hours of working, and you can choose when in which day you want to work. We always take care of your schedule and your college learning first, and make you feel this is the most flexible job ever.

LEARNING COOPERATING!

In our dining hall, you will always work with other people like you, college students! So you can make friendship through your experience of working in the dining hall. Also you will learn how to make a team work with other people. It will be a great experience of learning cooperating in order to adapt the job in the future after you graduate.

 

9.1 9.2

9.1

5 stars   This is a perfect and budget-friendly mouse

The wireless mouse I receive yesterday is perfectly adapted to my computer. It’s small and delicate with decoration and special design of shape which can fit my hands perfectly. Everything just works as well as the one I used to have, and the mouse only spend me 9 bucks! How great is that?

9.2

When we see a little girl with a straight cut bang doing weird face in a cover of a single, we can already guess that Sia’s new single has released.

Sung and written by Sia, the famous Australian singer who also sing the hit “chandelier,” the explosive single “Alive” has recently become the hottest hit in Billboard. In the song, Sia unleashes her devastating, electrifying voice to perform the first single for her upcoming album, This is Acting.

In the lyrics, Sia mentions her early experience of being in the music industry: “I was born in a thunderstorm. I grew up overnight. I played alone. I play on my own. But I survived.” As a solo artist before getting famous, Sia conquered many challengers, and like the lyrics written, she survived in the music industry.

Furthermore, Sia mentions that before she became successful, she went to “a place where all the demons go.” This can refers to her alcoholic history, and all the dark side inside of her showed into the public. That place was “no hope, just lies and you’re taught to cry in your pillow,” which can also be related to the dark side of the music industry. Sia always use her lyrics to emphasize the mind control of singers, which is the dark side of the music industry. However she survived from all the negative emotions and become alive in her career. Now Sia uses her strong voice to deliver her tenaciousness which enables her to survive in this cruel music industry.

10.1

Facial cream which can moisturize facial skins after washing face.

Target will be men who usually don’t take care of their skin.

  1. As a trend, more and more men are taking care of their skin. Men should never feel ashamed to take care of their skin.
  2. A good skin also can prove your appearance significantly, so people will feel more confident in their job interviews and dates
  3. It’s not expensive. If normal people use twice per day, a small jaw of facial cream can at least take care of skin for one or two month.